The Mambises maquette. glazed ceramic tiles with Havana tile pattern, 18 x 12 inches, 2022.
The Mambises were courageous fighters during the Cuban War of Independence. Once the USA got involved and the war became the Spanish-American War, the Americans got control over Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. The Mambises, who were mostly Afro-Cubans, were denied representation in the new Cuban government. In fact, many were executed in 1912 by the Cuban government and American-backed militias.