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The Mambises maquette.  glazed ceramic tiles with Havana tile pattern, 18 x 12 inches, 2022.  

The Mambises were courageous fighters during the Cuban War of Independence.  Once the USA got involved and the war became the Spanish-American War, the Americans got control over Cuba, the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.  The Mambises, who were mostly Afro-Cubans, were denied representation in the new Cuban government.  In fact, many were executed in 1912 by the Cuban government and American-backed militias.

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